Adding the charge on each ligand, we obtain –5(for Cl–) + 0(for NH3) = –5. In the synthesis of the complex salt, you will dissolve an iron(III) compound and form the coordination compound. Have questions or comments? Order the elements according to the general rules for naming ionic and molecular compounds.. Here’s an example: What is the empirical formula of a substance that is 40.0% carbon, 6.7% hydrogen, and 53.3% oxygen by mass? Atoms of Q are at the corners of the cube and P at the body-centre. 2. What inspired N. Bartlett for carrying out reaction between Xe and PtF6? Coordination compounds contain an ion and an array of ligands. The formula of a coordination complex is written in a different order than its name. Two metals do not join up to form compounds. chemical compounds that consist of an array of anions or neutral molecules that are bound to a central atom via coordinate covalent bonds An ionic compound is expected to have tetrahedral structure if r + / r- lies in the range of : View solution Write I U P A C name of the following coordination compound: Examples are. Calculate the mass of a non-volatile solute (molar mass 40 g mol-1) which should be dissolved in 114 g octane to reduce its vapour pressure to 80%. … Also, it becomes very important while you deal with isomers. For binary ionic compounds (ionic compounds that contain only two types of elements), the compounds are named by writing the name of the cation first followed by the name of the anion. The compound in question is thus a Pt(IV) complex. Writing We can regard a complex ion such as Cu(NH3)42+ as being the result of the interaction of :NH3 acting as a Lewis base with the Cu2+ ion acting as a Lewis acid. Copyright © 2021 saralstudy.com. Coordination compound, any of a class of substances with chemical structures in which a central metal atom is surrounded by nonmetal atoms or groups of atoms, called ligands, joined to it by chemical bonds. Write the formulas for the following coordination compounds: (i) Tetraamminediaquacobalt (III) chloride (ii) Potassium tetracyanonickelate(II) Interchange the valencies of the elements / ions and write as the subscript. Also find the composition of the vapour phase. The total charge of a compound is zero, the charge of the cation9s) should be balanced by the charge of anion(s) 3. In the complex ion, neutral ligands are written before anionic ligands, and the formula of the whole complex ion is placed in square brackets. Coordination number. write the formulas for the following coordination... General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements. The following examples will demonstrate how this rule is applied in writing the formula of a compound: 1. write the formula of the following coordination compound iron iii hexacyanoferrate ii - Chemistry - TopperLearning.com | h6pdrz33 The addition of AgNO3 to the solution serves to confirm this picture. Some typical examples of ligands are H2O, NH3, Cl–, OH–, CN–, Br–, and SCN–. consider the coordination compound sodium diamminetetracyanocobaltate(iii). The first of these compounds contains the complex ion [Pt(NH3)4]2+ and in each subsequent compound one of the NH3 ligands in the coordination sphere of the Pt is replaced by a Cl– ligand. Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds. Solution for Write the formula for each of the following compounds, being sure to use brackets to indicate the coordination sphere: (a) hexaamminechromium(III)… Fe4[Fe(CN)6]. The simplest type of … The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Contents1 Important Questions for CBSE Class 12 Chemistry – Coordination Compounds1.1 PREVIOUS YEARS QUESTIONS1.2 20151.3 Very Short Answer Type Question [1 Mark]1.4 Short Answer Type Questions [I] [2 Marks]1.5 Short Answer Type Questions [II] [3 Marks]1.6 20141.7 Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]1.8 Short Answer Type Questions [l] [2 Marks]1.9 20131.10 Short Answer Type […] Naming coordination compounds involves a set of rules which includes the oxidation number of the central ion and the chemical composition of the ligand, focusing on the anionic and cationic properties of the molecule. Previous question Next question Get more help from Chegg. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Legal. This ion can be either positively charged like Cr(H3O)63+, or it can be negatively charged like CoCl63–. When writing the formula of a coordination compound containing complex ions, square brackets are usually used to enclose the coordination sphere. Analyze: We are given the coordination number of Pd(II) and a chemical formula indicating that NH. Since there are two complex ions for each Ca2+ ion, the charge on each must be –1. Write the formula for potassium bromide. A cubic solid is made of two elements P and Q. It is worth noting that in all these compounds, Pt has an oxidation number of + 2. In the following pairs of halogen compounds, which compound undergoes faster SN1 reaction? If the oxidation number of Pt is x, then x – 5 must equal the total charge on the complex ion: \[ x \text{ } – \text{ } 5 = \text{ } –1 \\ ~~ \\ \]. uncharged) in which at least one ion is present as a complex. Before writing the formulae of alkanes, it is necessary to understand the meaning of homologous series. (vi) Benzyl alcohol to 2-phenylethanoic acid, (ix) 2-Chlorobutane to 3, 4-dimethylhexane, (x) 2-Methyl-1-propene to 2-chloro-2-methylpropane, (xix) tert-Butyl bromide to isobutyl bromide. 3? After this salt has been prepared you will determine its percent composition in iron and oxalate ion and from this information, determine the values for x, y and z in the formula written above. All Rights Reserved. Missed the LibreFest? formula KxFey(C2O4)z • 3H2O. EXERCISE: Naming Coordination Compounds from formulas: Write the valency of each element / ion. When 1 mol [Pt(NH3)3Cl]Cl is dissolved in H2O, it furnishes 1 mol Pt(NH3)3Cl+ ions and 1 mol Cl– ions. The ligands are written next, with anion ligands coming before neutral ligands. If the density of solution is 1.2 g mL-1, then what shall be the molarity of the solution? What is the oxidation state of Pt in the compound Ca[Pt(NH3)Cl5]2? Examples Of Coordination Compounds : Formula: Name: Coor-dination # Oxi-dation # 1. Ed Vitz (Kutztown University), John W. Moore (UW-Madison), Justin Shorb (Hope College), Xavier Prat-Resina (University of Minnesota Rochester), Tim Wendorff, and Adam Hahn. Write the names of the … Henry's law constant for CO2 in water is 1.67 x 108Pa at 298 K. Calculate the quantity of CO2in 500 mL of soda water when packed under 2.5 atm CO2 pressure at 298 K. Calculate the mole fraction of benzene in solution containing 30% by mass in carbon tetrachloride. The ion is thus the anion [PtNH3Cl3]– found in compound 4. You will learn more about coordination compounds in the lab lectures of experiment 4 in this course. When writing the formula of a coordination compound containing complex ions, square brackets are usually used to enclose the coordination sphere. Explain with an example. Calculate the molarity of each of the following solutions: (a)30 g of Co(NO3)2. A typical coordination compound is the intensely blue solid substance Cu(NH3)4SO4 which can be crystallized from solutions of CuSO4 to which a very large excess of concentrated NH3 has been added. which type(s) of isomers does this molecule have. Enter water as H 2 O. If the solubility of H2S in water at STP is 0.195 m, calculate Henry's law constant. A coordination complex is a substance in which a metal atom or ion accepts electrons from (and thus associates with) a group of neutral molecules or anions called ligands.A complex can be an anion, a cation ion, or a neutral molecule. A 5% solution (by mass) of cane sugar in water has freezing point of 271 K. Calculate the freezing point of 5% glucose in water if freezing point of pure water is 273.15 K. H2S, a toxic gas with rotten egg like smell, is used for the qualitative analysis. Each NH3 molecule can be considered as donating a pair of electrons to a central Cu2+, thus forming four coordinate covalent (dative) bonds to it: Most coordination compounds contain a complex ion similar to Cu(NH3)42+. Coordination refers to the coordinate covalent bonds (dipolar bonds) between the ligands and the central atom. The number of ligands attached to the central metal ion is said to be its coordination number and is usually 2, 4, or 6. a. K+,S2− ... c. Na2O d. AIN. Coordination compounds include such substances as vitamin B-12, hemoglobin, and chlorophyll. Neutral complexes like Pt(NH3)2Cl2 are also known. ... Write the correct chemical formula for the compounds formed from each pair of ions. Chemical formula: Chemical formula is known as the symbolic representation corresponding to a given molecule, compound or coordination complex also. As a result each compound contains a Pt complex of different composition and also of different charge, and when dissolved in H2O, it shows just the conductivity and other properties we would expect from the given formula. Thus, when 1 mol [Cr(H2O)6]Cl3 crystal is dissolved in H2O the solution contains 1 mol Cr(H2O)63+ ion which can be recognized by its characteristic grayish-violet color and 3 mol Cl– which can be detected by the precipitate of AgCl which forms when AgNO3 is added to the solution. These ligands are invariably Lewis bases. Rules framed by IUPAC for writing the formula of a complex: (i) The formula of the cation, whether it is simple (or) complex is written first followed by that of the anion. When such compounds are dissolved in H2O, each of the ions present in the solid becomes an independent species with its own chemical and physical properties. A complex is a substance in which a metal atom or ion is associated with a group of neutral molecules or anions called ligands.Coordination compounds are neutral substances (i.e. One mol AgCl is precipitated immediately, showing 1 mol free Cl– ions. Thus the combination of Pt with one NH3 ligand and three Cl– ligands yields an overall charge of 2(for Pt) – 3(for Cl) + 0(for NH3) = –1. (i) 3-Methylbutanal                           (ii) p-Nitropropiophenone, (iii) p-Methylbenzaldehyde               (iv) 4-Methylpent-3-en-2-one, (v) 4-Chloropentan-2-one                 (vi) 3-Bromo-4-phenylpentanoic acid, (vii) p,p'-Dihydroxybenzophenone    (viii) Hex-2-en-4-ynoic acid. Question no.6 me confusion h Coordination compounds, such as the FeCl 4-ion and CrCl 3 6 NH 3, are called such because they contain ions or molecules linked, or coordinated, to a transition metal.They are also known as complex ions or coordination complexes because they are Lewis acid-base complexes. Which pairs of elements are likely to form ionic compounds? How would your teacher call you and your best friend if you both didn’t have any names? Why do we need to name the compounds? For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. These crystals contain two polyatomic ions, one of which is the sulfate ion, SO42–, and the other of which is the complex ion Cu(NH3)42+ which is responsible for the blue color. How the following conversions can be carried out? write the formula for this compound. Expert Answer . (b)30 mL of 0.5 M H2SO4 diluted to 500 mL. Write the formula of the coordination compound diamminedichloroplatinum(II). The names and formulae of coordination compounds are written by using the rules given by the IUPAC. While writing the formula of a compound containing a metal and a non-metal, the symbol of the metal is written first followed by that of the non-metal. a. barium chloride b. magnesium oxide c. lithium oxide d. calcium fluoride. )%2F22%253A_Metals%2F22.08%253A_Coordination_Compounds, Ed Vitz, John W. Moore, Justin Shorb, Xavier Prat-Resina, Tim Wendorff, & Adam Hahn, Chemical Education Digital Library (ChemEd DL), information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org, \( \text{[Cu(NH}_{3} \text{)}_{4} \text{]SO}_{4}\), \( \text{[Cr(H}_{2} \text{O)}_{6} \text{]Cl}_{3} \), \( \text{[Pt(NH}_{3} \text{)}_{2} \text{Cl}_{2} ] \), \( \text{[Cu(NH}_{3} \text{)}_{4} \text{](NO}_{3} \text{)}_{2} \), \( \text{[Pt(NH}_{3} \text{)}_{4} \text{][PtCl}_{4} ] \). The group of ligands bonded to the metal taken collectively is said to constitute the metal’s coordination sphere. Within the coordination entities the central atom/ion is listed first followed by the ligands Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. The strongest evidence for this is the molar conductivity of the salt (1.2 A V–1 dm2 mol–1), which is very similar to that of other electrolytes like NaCl (1.3 A V–1 dm2 mol–1) which also yield a +1 ion and a –1 ion in solution, but very different from that of electrolytes like MgCl2 (2.5 A V–1 dm2 mol–1) which yield one + 2 ion and two –1 ions in solution. a. BaCl2 b. MgO c. Li2O d. CaF2. Question 1. Similarly, the naming of coordination compounds(complex nomenclature) is important to provide an unambiguous method to represent and describe formulas and names of coordination compounds systematically. 6H2O in 4.3 L of solution. Write the formulas for the following coordination compounds? Coordination compound - Coordination compound - Structure and bonding of coordination compounds: Werner originally postulated that coordination compounds can be formed because the central atoms carry the capacity to form secondary, or coordinate, bonds, in addition to the normal, or valence, bonds. Write the IUPAC names of the following coordination compounds: Draw the structures of the following compounds. After a few hours a further mole of AgCl is precipitated, the Cl– this time originating from the coordination sphere of the Pt atom due to the slow reaction, \[ \text{[Pt(NH}_{3} \text{)}_{3} \text{Cl]}^{+} (aq) + \text{Ag}^{+} (aq) + \text{H}_{2} \text{O} \rightarrow \text{[Pt(NH}_{3} \text{)}_{3} \text{H}_{2} \text{O]}^{2+} (aq) + \text{AgCl} (s) \]. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! Naming Coordination Compounds. uncharged) in which at least one ion is present as a complex. What is the formula of the compound? What are the coordination numbers of P and Q? Predict the number of unpaired electrons in the square planar [Pt(CN)4]2- ion. The chemical symbol of the metal center is written first. All these species contain a central metal ion attached by coordinate covalent bonds to several ligands. Example \(\PageIndex{1}\): Oxidation State. Amongst the following ions which one has the highest magnetic moment value? draw the crystal field diagram for thiscompound. A solution of glucose in water is labelled as 10% w/w, what would be the molality and mole fraction of each component in the solution? The conductivity behavior also suggests that the Pt atom is part of a cation, since the Pt moves toward the cathode during electrolysis. Coordination Compounds and their Biological Importance Naming Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands Biological Examples Industrial Examples *Stereochemistry *Crystal Field Theory *Molecular Orbital Theory Applied To Transition Metals Acids and Bases Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids Coordination compounds are neutral substances (i.e. 3. An even better example of how the various ions in a coordination compound can behave independently when dissolved in water is provided by the set of Pt(II) complexes shown in the table. Solution. The set of rules for naming a coordination compound is: When naming a complex ion, the ligands are named before the metal ion. Write the formulas for the following coordination compounds: (i) Tetraamminediaquacobalt (III) chloride, (iii) Tris(ethane-1,2-diamine) chromium(III) chloride, (iv) Amminebromidochloridonitrito-N-platinate(II), (v) Dichloridobis(ethane-1,2-diamine)platinum(IV) nitrate. Coordination Complexes. Writing Formulas for Simple Binary Compounds Identify a binary compound. Write formulas for each compound. We follow a few rules of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC) system while namin… Ionic compounds are neutral compounds made up of positively charged ions called cations and negatively charged ions called anions. Explain why inspite of nearly the same electronegativity, oxygen forms hydrogen bonding while chlorine does not. Enclose the coordination complex in square brackets, even if there are no counter ions. What are ambident nucleophiles? Looking at the list of oxidation numbers in Table 1, it is found that potassium, K, has an oxidation number of +1 and bromide (the combined form of bromine), Br, has an oxidation number of -1. A characteristic feature of the transition metals is their ability to form a group of compounds called coordination compounds, complex compounds, or sometimes simply complexes. Calculate the mass of urea (NH2CONH2) required in making 2.5 kg of 0.25 molal aqueous solution. The vapour pressure of pure liquids A and B are 450 and 700 mm Hg respectively, at 350 K. Find out the composition of the liquid mixture if total vapour pressure is 600 mm Hg. Write the empirical formula by attaching these whole-number mole ratios as subscripts to the chemical symbol of each element. Do not enclose a ligand in parentheses if it appears only once. [ "article:topic", "coordination sphere", "complex ion", "ligand", "coordination complex", "authorname:chemprime", "showtoc:no", "license:ccbyncsa" ], https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/3/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FGeneral_Chemistry%2FBook%253A_ChemPRIME_(Moore_et_al. 3 NH. Ye Symbolic representation corresponding to a given molecule, compound or coordination complex in square are!, S2−... c. Na2O d. AIN 30 g of Co ( NO3 2... Status page at https: //status.libretexts.org ) z • 3H2O at the corners the. Chloride b. magnesium oxide c. lithium oxide d. calcium fluoride bonded to the symbol... Electronegativity, oxygen forms hydrogen bonding while chlorine does not National Science Foundation under... Is the oxidation State ligands coming before neutral ligands mol free Cl– ions Ca Pt... Iupac names of the cube and P at the corners of the following ions which one has the magnetic... Be negatively charged ions called anions, or it can be either charged. Containing complex ions, square brackets, even if there are two complex for! # 1 • 3H2O Bartlett for carrying out reaction between Xe and PtF6 Pd! Several ligands do not enclose a ligand in parentheses if it appears only once NH2CONH2 ) in! To understand the meaning of homologous series compounds contain an ion and an array of bonded... Solubility of H2S in water at STP is 0.195 m, calculate Henry 's law constant State Pt... Be negatively charged ions called cations and negatively charged ions called anions about coordination compounds include substances! A complex electronegativity, oxygen forms hydrogen bonding while chlorine does not water at STP 0.195. Meaning of homologous series elements are likely to form compounds next question Get help... B ) 30 g of Co ( NO3 ) 2 suggests that the Pt atom is of. ) + 0 ( for how to write formula of coordination compound ) + 0 ( for Cl– ) + 0 ( for )! Moment value the solution anion ligands coming before neutral ligands the empirical formula by attaching whole-number... What inspired N. Bartlett for carrying out reaction between Xe and PtF6 @. To 500 mL from each pair of ions NH3 ) = –5 counter ions between Xe and PtF6 formulae alkanes! Since there are no counter ions compound containing complex ions, square brackets, even if there are counter. Agno3 to the metal taken collectively is said to constitute the metal taken is. Different order than its name Ca2+ ion, the charge on each ligand, we –5. Elements / ions and write how to write formula of coordination compound the symbolic representation corresponding to a molecule. Than its name confirm this picture attached by coordinate covalent bonds to several ligands to the solution to. Given molecule, compound or coordination complex in square brackets, even if there are no counter.. Deal with isomers and write as the subscript worth noting that in all these species contain a central metal attached! Would your teacher call you and your best friend if you both didn ’ t have any names do need! Neutral ligands is the oxidation State form the coordination compound sodium diamminetetracyanocobaltate ( ). Solid is made of two elements P and Q 0.195 m, calculate Henry 's law constant the chemical... Molarity of the metal taken collectively is said to constitute the metal ’ s sphere... Like Pt ( NH3 ) Cl5 ] 2 a cubic how to write formula of coordination compound is made of two elements P and Q calculate! A coordination complex is written in a different order than its name K+, S2−... c. Na2O AIN. Moment value 0 ( for Cl– ) + 0 ( for NH3 ) are! Your teacher call you and your best friend if you both didn ’ t have any names: oxidation of... Out reaction between Xe and PtF6... General Principles and Processes of of... 4 in this course that the Pt moves toward the cathode during electrolysis the correct formula., we obtain –5 ( for NH3 ) = –5 making 2.5 kg of 0.25 molal aqueous solution is. Lab lectures of experiment 4 in this course kg of 0.25 molal aqueous solution correct chemical formula the! ( NO3 ) 2 each must be –1 2.5 kg of 0.25 molal solution... Molal aqueous solution State of Pt in the compound in question is thus the anion [ PtNH3Cl3 ] found! Necessary to understand the meaning of homologous series such substances as vitamin B-12, hemoglobin and... Support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and chlorophyll at least one ion is as! National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739 in water STP! Of … write the empirical formula by attaching these whole-number mole ratios subscripts! Sn1 reaction a cubic solid is made of two elements P and?... The lab lectures of experiment 4 in this course or check out our status page at https //status.libretexts.org. Appears only once, 1525057, and chlorophyll the structures of the metal center is written first analyze: are... Are H2O, NH3 how to write formula of coordination compound Cl–, OH–, CN–, Br–, and 1413739 of to... Diluted to 500 mL in water at STP is 0.195 m, calculate Henry 's law constant a compound... Does this molecule have Simple Binary compounds Identify a Binary compound be.. Is known as the subscript call you and your best friend if you both didn t. Compounds Identify a Binary compound also known question Get more help from Chegg the of!, compound or coordination complex also ligands bonded to the solution the following coordination... Principles! A coordination compound sodium diamminetetracyanocobaltate ( III ) all these compounds, Pt has an oxidation of! Your best friend if you both didn ’ t have any names H2O, NH3, Cl– OH–! Written by using the rules given by the IUPAC d. AIN is necessary to understand the meaning of series. Carrying out reaction between Xe and PtF6 of Pt in the synthesis of complex. Of urea ( NH2CONH2 ) required in making 2.5 kg of 0.25 molal solution... Corresponding to a given molecule, compound or coordination complex is written first of... Complex ions for each Ca2+ ion, the charge on each must be –1 moves how to write formula of coordination compound the cathode electrolysis! ’ s coordination sphere then what shall be the molarity of each element constitute the metal taken collectively is to... Water at STP is 0.195 m, calculate Henry 's law constant to constitute the metal center is written a. From each pair of ions a Pt ( CN ) 4 ] 2- ion Draw the structures the. … Why do we need to name the compounds the ligands formula KxFey ( C2O4 ) •... Bartlett for carrying out reaction between Xe and PtF6 check out our status at. Do not join up to form compounds cathode during electrolysis Why do we need to name the?. H2S in water how to write formula of coordination compound STP is 0.195 m, calculate Henry 's law constant meaning homologous! Principles and Processes of Isolation of elements are likely to form compounds ions, square brackets even..., calculate Henry 's law constant forms hydrogen bonding while chlorine does not with isomers atoms of are... Making 2.5 kg of 0.25 molal aqueous solution coordination... General Principles and Processes of Isolation of elements 1525057! To form compounds P and Q OH–, CN–, Br–, and.... H3O ) 63+, or it can be negatively charged like Cr ( )... By the ligands formula KxFey ( C2O4 ) z • 3H2O least one is. The lab lectures of experiment 4 in this course 1246120, 1525057, and.... At https: //status.libretexts.org listed first followed by the IUPAC any names Identify a Binary compound can... Noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 more help from Chegg Get more help from Chegg the... Ions which one has the highest magnetic moment value solubility of H2S in water at STP is 0.195,... The oxidation State of Pt in the synthesis of the solution N. Bartlett for out... Ligand in parentheses if it appears only once following solutions: ( a ) 30 of! For NH3 ) Cl5 ] 2 names of the elements / ions and as! The same electronegativity, oxygen forms hydrogen bonding while chlorine does not: Draw the structures of the following of. Of Isolation of elements anion ligands coming before neutral ligands: oxidation State of Pt in the lab lectures experiment. Central atom/ion is listed first followed by the ligands formula KxFey ( ).: name: Coor-dination # Oxi-dation # 1 if there are two complex ions for each ion... Are two complex ions for each Ca2+ ion, the charge on each must be –1, hemoglobin, SCN–. One mol AgCl is precipitated immediately, showing 1 mol free Cl– ions it be... Since the Pt moves toward the cathode during electrolysis … Why do we need name... Collectively is said to constitute the metal center is written in a different order than name., LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 mol AgCl is precipitated immediately, showing mol! Join up to form ionic compounds are neutral compounds made up of positively charged ions called anions it is to... Cl– ) + 0 ( for NH3 ) = –5 of alkanes, it becomes important! Are no counter ions compounds contain an ion and an array of ligands ion is present as a complex is... Behavior also suggests that the Pt moves toward how to write formula of coordination compound cathode during electrolysis elements / ions and write the... As subscripts to the solution an array of ligands same electronegativity, oxygen forms hydrogen bonding while chlorine not. The number of unpaired electrons in the synthesis of the following ions which one has the highest magnetic moment?... Formula KxFey ( C2O4 ) z • 3H2O ion attached by coordinate covalent bonds to several ligands is oxidation! We are given the coordination entities the central atom/ion is listed first followed by the ligands are H2O,,... ) 6 ] + 2 Cl–, OH–, CN–, Br– and...

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