The interdiction effort (like the entire American effort in Vietnam) became focused on statistics as a measure of success and "devolved from considered tactics to meaningless ritual. American analysts were elated when they discovered that the number of trucks ordered by North Vietnam from its communist allies in late 1971 exceeded those of previous years. [7], And so matters stood until the massive PAVN/NLF Tet Offensive of early 1968. As a result of this all-out effort, U.S. intelligence analysts claimed 10,689 North Vietnamese trucks were destroyed and credited AC-130E Spectres alone with 7,335 of these kills. What this effectively did was shift the bombing campaign southwestward to the Ho Chi Minh Trail. By early the following year the pipeline had crossed the Laotian frontier and by summer it had reached Muong Nong and the approaches to the Ashau Valley. [10] By the end of the conflict, U.S. and South Vietnamese aircraft would drop over three million tons of ordnance on Laos, three times the total tonnage dropped on North Vietnam. The presence and movements of enemy troops were to be detected by the utilization of small, wide-area Gravel mines that were to alert the acoustic sensors. They also retook Attopeu, Saravane, and Ban Thateng, cementing their hold on the strategic Bolovens Plateau of south central Laos. The focus of any interdiction campaign, therefore, would have to concentrate on PAVN supply transportation. Missions conducted by CIA-backed Laotian irregulars and Thai volunteers operating on the western flank of the trail (and the Lon Nol coup in Cambodia) prompted PAVN to launch offensives in Laos to protect and expand their system. During this dry season phase, the U.S. averaged 182 attack fighters, 13 fixed-wing gunships, and 21 B-52 sorties per day. I am going for a PW3 camshaft and now I have put my eyes on a Joe Hunt magneto. The goal of the Commando Hunt campaigns was not to halt infiltration, but to make the North Vietnamese pay too heavy a price for their effort. These missions were supplemented by 1,718 B-52 strikes. [28], For the U.S. program there were, of course, teething troubles. The ambassador (with the full backing of the State Department and the CIA) maintained a firm hold over all military operations conducted within the supposedly "neutral" Kingdom of Laos. Please reconcile the discrepancy. [42] The Kaman River was added to the system in 1969. During the year the North Vietnamese began deploying longer-ranged and radar-directed 85 and 100 mm guns. Thank you. [44] The buildup of PAVN anti-aircraft defenses continued to increase. All U.S. and South Vietnamese air assets were diverted to first slowing, and then halting the onslaught. [33] The depth of penetration by these reconnaissance efforts was hampered by the same man who had the last word in the bombing effort, Ambassador William H. Sullivan in Vientiane. I am now getting deeper into odd ideas on my 850 project. During the same period about 80,000 PAVN troops made the trip south. Commando Hunt II (1 May through 31 October 1969), however, was thrown off track by phenomena that the Air Force could do absolutely nothing about. On the other side of the fence, the North Vietnamese transported and/or stored 70,000 tons of supplies in 3,000 trucks with a net loss of 13.5 percent during the year. Interdiction missions were then diverted to carry out an even more heavy aerial offensive against the north (see Operation Linebacker II). [14], Igloo White consisted of three interrelated parts. Go To Top of Page Go … By the time of the opening of Commando Hunt VI, that figure had decreased to 1,199 aircraft and this number dropped to 953 before that phase was completed; Second, this state of affairs was exacerbated by the withdrawal of sorties to conduct missions for Operation Freedom Deal in Cambodia.[53]. During the offensive, 80 percent of all U.S. aerial sorties were directed to support it. At night, fixed-wing gunships would prowl for prey. I remember it worked well on my Bonneville years ago. On 17 June 1967 the title of the program was altered to Illinois City and on 15 July to Dyemarker, the electronic barrier portion of which was designated Muscle Shoals. Systematic U.S. aerial operations against the Ho Chi Minh Trail had begun on 14 December 1964 with Operation Barrel Roll. [6] During the same time frame 132 U.S. aircraft or helicopters were shot down over Laos. For instance, Air Force intelligence claimed that 9,012 enemy trucks were destroyed during 1969. This lasts call of WW2 United States Army commando game is survival battleground of duty for best shooting games. Rolling Thunder Remembered will provide weekly posts that summarizes Commando Hunt operations and the ground war in remembrance of the more than 150 young Americans that were killed every week prior to Operation Linebacker. [21] Unfortunately, the mines rapidly deteriorated in the heat and humidity of Laos, nullifying their effectiveness. It was never assumed that the campaigns would halt the North Vietnamese logistical effort, so the goals of the campaigns were limited. By 1968 PAVN was relying less on manual labor and increasingly utilizing modern construction equipment. The B-52s, tactical fighters and the AC-119 and AC-130 gunships played a major part in the campaigns and the AC-130 Spectre was claimed to be the most effective aircraft in killing trucks. Operation Commando Hunt was a covert U.S. The operation to hunt down and destroy the remaining elements of the commando raiders in the Hadrut area is under way. The introduction and infobox say that the operation started on 11 November, but later on the article says On 15 November 1968 the Seventh Air Force was granted authorization for launch of Commando Hunt. You will never find a more wretched hive of scum and … It was a daunting challenge. The operation began on 11 November 1968 and ended on 29 March 1972. Commando Hunt VI: from 1971-05-15 to 1971-10-31]] Consolidation I: ... Operation Frequent Wind: from 29 April 1975 to 30 April 1975. A scientific group was established to find or develop the technology for what was initially titled Practice Nine. The seed of the campaign's failure, however, was sown in its first operation. The lower figures were attributed to the fact that many PAVN air defense units had been moved to the Tchepone area to support the counteroffensive against the South Vietnamese Operation Lam Son 719. Seventh Air Force and U.S. Navy Task Force 77 aerial interdiction campaign that took place during the Vietnam War. "[39] The motivating factor became evident in April, when U.S. and South Vietnamese ground forces launched an incursion into the PAVN Base Areas lining the eastern border of Cambodia. The operation began on 11 November 1968 and ended on 29 March 1972. There was a lack of sufficient numbers of sensor strings and controlling the number of aircraft available for the missions proved problematic. The new effort would also be supported by aerial defoliation missions (Operation Ranch Hand) and the cloud-seeding weather modification effort known as Operation Popeye (see Ho Chi Minh Trail). An intelligence collection and technical reassessment effort invited the Air Force to make another attempt to force the North Vietnamese pay for their effort in blood instead of in imported supplies and trucks. [29] During Commando Hunt III (1 November 1969 to 30 April 1970), the Air Force claimed that 6,428 enemy trucks destroyed and another 3,604 damaged. The new sensor-directed effort would see, for the first time, continuous round-the-clock bombing of the communist logistical system. [55] Commando Hunt VI, launched during the wet season, was hampered by heavy rain and the arrival of two typhoons which threw off both the PAVN logistical effort and U.S. attempts to interdict it. [49] In fact, there were only 2,500–3,000 PAVN trucks operating on the trail during 1970–1971, each carrying approximately four tons of materiel.[50]. The objective of the campaign was to prevent the transit of People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) personnel and supplies on the logistical corridor known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail (the Truong Son Road to the North Vietnamese) that ran from the southwestern Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) through the southeastern portion of the Kingdom of Laos and into the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). The real problem for U.S. planners was a lack of sufficient intelligence on the numbers of infiltrators, the amount of supplies being transported, the number of trucks operating, the specific locations of targets in a rapidly changing environment, and the infrastructure of the system. Human intelligence was provided by CIA-backed Laotian irregulars and Thai volunteers operating from the western side of the system while the eastern side was covered by SOG. Aircraft deployed to Thailand for the missions made use of the Air America/Continental Air Services ramp at Ubon Royal Thai Air Base, separating them from regular US Air Force units at the base. On 15 November 1968 the Seventh Air Force was granted authorization for launch of Commando Hunt.[23]. [60] However, since 80 percent of the vehicles arrived in North Vietnam at least six weeks before the launching of the Nguyen Hue Offensive (known to the U.S. as the Easter Offensive, they probably reflected anticipated losses.[61]. The American public (who had been reassured by President Lyndon B. Johnson and the Pentagon that the communists were incapable of launching any such actions) were stunned by the size and ferocity of the offensive. 60 aircraft were shot down during this phase of the campaign by an estimated 743 anti-aircraft weapons. Operation Commando Hunt was a covert U.S. Productivity epitomized what the war had become: an exercise in management effectiveness. Corollary to this was the destruction of as much of their logistical system as possible and to tie down as many PAVN forces in static security roles as possible. The British strike force would number fewer than 600 men, a neat package of 3 Commando, a troop and a half of 2 Commando, Royal Engineers from 6 Commando, medics from 4 Commando, some War Office Intelligence officers, and interpreters of the Royal Norwegian Army. At the rate of attrition claimed in December, however, the PAVN transportation network should have been destroyed in only a month and a half. "[48], During Commando Hunt V (10 October 1970 to 30 April 1971) Air Force intelligence claimed 16,266 trucks destroyed and another 7,700 damaged during the dry season offensive. The plastic line, assisted by numerous small pumping stations, could transfer diesel fuel, gasoline, and kerosene all in the same pipe. [44] The Seventh Air Force headquarters in Saigon, chagrined by the enormity of the figures, recomputed them and lowered the estimate to 11,000 destroyed and 8,000 damaged. Seventh Air Force and U.S. Navy Task Force 77 aerial interdiction campaign that took place during the Vietnam War. [11] The new campaign against the trail was unprecedented, and not just due to the numbers sorties flown or munitions expended. For an overview of the offensive and its political repercussions, see Clark Dougan, Stephen Weiss, et al.. For an excellent description of the covert CIA effort in Laos, see Kenneth Conboy with James Morrison, This process was unusual in that it married older aviation technology with the newest developments in the field. During this dry season phase, the U.S. averaged 182 attack fighters, 13 fixed-wing gunships, and 21 B-52 sorties per day. The B-57G conducted its first combat missions in October 1970 during Operation Commando Hunt V. Operation Shed Light-Wikipedia They found themselves with only half the U.S. air sorties planned upon, and that commitment for five days only; the brand new Operation Commando Hunt truck killing campaign on the Ho Chi Minh Trail was absorbing the rest. By the end of May the North Vietnamese had occupied Muong Phalane, Ban Houei Sai, and Paksong. [1] With the onset of Operation Rolling Thunder, the strategic aerial bombardment of North Vietnam in April 1965, the U.S. also expanded its interdiction effort in Laos by dividing the Barrel Roll area into two sections on 3 April. Download deze game in Microsoft Store voor Windows 10, Windows 10 Mobile, Windows 10 Team (Surface Hub), HoloLens. The design of the medal's suspension ribbon reflects that of the flag of the former South Vietnam -- yellow with three red stripes. The U.S. was going to field its latest technology in its attempt to make the North Vietnamese pay for their continued effort to unite the two Vietnams. Construction began on the ISC on 6 July 1967 and was completed within three months.[15]. [37] A new North Vietnamese logistical effort, discovered by U.S. intelligence in late 1968, was a petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL) pipeline running southwest from the North Vietnamese city of Vinh. Some description early on of actions in the North, including some poorly pronounced Vietnamese place names. For more details on on the North Vietnamese logistical system, see, For more details on on the electronic sensor operation, see, For more details on on the PAVN logistical system in Cambodia, see, For more details on on the incursion into Cambodia, see, For more details on on SAC bombing campaign in eastern Cambodia 18 March 1969 – 26 May 1970, see, For more details on on the South Vietnamese offensive into Laos, see, For more details on on the North Vietnamese offensive, see, For more details on on the second U.S. aerial campaign against North Vietnam, see, For more details on on the third U.S. aerial campaign against North Vietnam, see. [19] By the end of January 1968, Muscle Shoals had emplaced 316 sensors in 44 strings to detect North Vietnamese troop movements in the vicinity of the combat base. During Commando Hunt III the Seventh/Thirteenth Air Force estimated that 700 23-mm and 37 mm weapons, most of them radar-guided, were defending the trail system in southern Laos. The interdiction campaign against the enemy logistics corridor was massively expanded due to the increased number of U.S. aircraft (approximately 500 planes) made available by the closure of Rolling Thunder. The entire system was elaborately camouflaged from aerial observation and was constantly being maintained, expanded, and improved. The North Vietnamese built, maintained, and expanded, under a deluge of bombs, over 3,000 kilometers of roads and paths through the mountains and jungles while only two percent of the troops sent south were killed by the American effort to halt their infiltration into South Vietnam. The. During the year the North Vietnamese transported or stored 60,000 tons of supplies with a net loss rate of 2.07 percent. [17] Combat Skyspot was complemented by expanding the radio-based LORAN system utilized by other strike aircraft. 6,000 vehicles had been ordered from the Soviet Union alone (as opposed to the usual 3,000) and this seemed to indicate that the enemy was hurting for transportation and that the campaign was working. [5] PAVN countered this effort by concentrating more anti-aircraft artillery weapons within its logistical network. This failure had three sources. Star Wars: Republic Commando - Delta 62 (Ellis) During the campaign, ten American aircraft were lost to SAMs (mostly SA-2 Guideline)s and another thirteen were lost to more conventional weapons.[58]. Finally, all of the above were exacerbated by the communist's enviable ability to adapt their doctrine and tactics and to turn weaknesses into strengths. As they recuperated from their grievous wounds, some bright spark thought it would be a great propaganda stunt to send them to Britain for a morale-boosting tour. The anti-personnel portion of the program had already failed. The apex of these developments was reached by the deployment of the AC-130E Spectre, a conversion of the venerable C-130 Hercules cargo transport, in February 1968. This was made possible by the close-out of Rolling Thunder , which freed up hundreds of aircraft for interdiction missions. [46] This evolution in aircraft was a "dynamic reaction between opposing forces which led to a refinement of the tactics of employing round the clock interdiction and prompted development of specialized night attack systems. The mission of the Ground Studies Group was to support the sensor-driven Operation Commando Hunt, which saw the rapid expansion of the bombing of the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Operation Commando Hunt . POL barrels were spotted floating in the waters of the Kong River south of Ban Bak, Laos. The green trim at the edges is suggestive of the jungle nature of the conflict. The battery-operated sensors would be monitored by an airborne command and control center (ABCCC), which would relay the information to an Infiltration Surveillance Center (ISC), located at Nakhon Phanom, Thailand. [22] The freeing of aircraft (Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps) that had previously been participating in Rolling Thunder, when combined with those from Steel Tiger and Tiger Hound (which were both superseded by Commando Hunt), promised to create an interdiction effort of unprecedented scale. Commando Hunt VII came to a close with the launching of the PAVN offensive mentioned above. [45], Beginning in 1967 the Air Force had fielded a whole series of fixed-wing, side-firing gunships for nighttime interdiction missions. First, there were the political constraints imposed by Washington that limited the entire American effort in Southeast Asia (the continued fiction of Laotian and Cambodian "neutrality", failure to disrupt the trail with U.S. ground forces when it would have made a difference, etc.) Since 1961 these tales of excitement, danger and courage under fire, on land, at sea, and in the air, and the dynamic artwork that accompanies them, have won Commando a loyal readership in the UK and around the world! During the campaign, however, ominous signs appeared in the … With the signing of the Paris Peace Accord in March 1973, the Vietnam War finally came to an end for the U.S. It also claimed that 20,723 enemy had been killed by air, 15 percent of the total number believed to have been travelling on, operating, or defending the trail. Operation Commando Hunt was a covert U.S.Seventh Air Force and U.S. Navy Task Force 77 aerial interdiction campaign that took place during the Vietnam War.The operation began on 15 November 1968 and ended on 29 March 1972. The first wet season offensive was hampered by atrocious weather, especially heavy rain (48 inches of rain in July alone). Seventh Air Force and U.S. Navy Task Force 77 aerial interdiction campaign that took place during the Vietnam War. They were then utilized in the first sustained bombing of North Vietnam since late 1968 (see Operation Linebacker). The immediate result of the 11 November bombing halt was that the average daily sortie rate over southern Laos rose to 620 per day before the new campaign had even begun. [63] Statistics, however, proved no substitute for strategy and, "for all the perceived success in that numbers game, the Air Force succeeded only in fooling itself into believing that Commando Hunt was working. 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