failing to provide an adequate resupply train for the winter. An army advancing up the Colorado River would cut off this escape route. It is uncertain if Kane was able to convince Young at this time to allow the army into Utah. Use these resources to follow the action from the invasion of Poland to the dropping of the atom bomb. In February 1858, Senator Sam Houston of Texas stated that a war against the Mormons would be, On April 1, Senator Simon Cameron of Pennsylvania declared that he would support a bill to authorize volunteers to fight in Utah and other parts of the frontier only because. Historian Harold Schindler states that his mission was to contact Governor Young and inform him of the expedition's mission: to escort the new appointees, to act as a Posse comitatus and to establish at least two and perhaps three new U.S. Army camps in Utah. The U.S. Congress created the Utah Territory as part of the Compromise of 1850. As the U.S. Constitution outlines, these executive and judicial appointments were confirmed by the Territorial Legislature, which largely consisted of popularly elected Latter-day Saints. "History of Utah, 1540-1886". On December 31, 1857, several days before Ives's arrival at Fort Yuma, Johnson's party steamed upstream from Yuma aboard the steamer "General Jesup". Dealing with a heavy snowfall and intense cold, the Mormon men built fortifications, dug rifle pits and dammed streams and rivers in preparation for a possible battle either that fall or the following spring. Unfortunately, there is one large historical black mark on the legacy of Prisoner of War camps in the United States, an isolated incident that claimed the lives of 9 German POWs. [36] Nevertheless, Van Vliet told Young that he believed that the Mormons "have been lied about the worst of any people I ever saw. Riding through the still empty streets of Salt Lake City on June 26, an embittered Johnston was heard to say that he would have given "his plantation for a chance to bombard the city for fifteen minutes. Young was willing to support Cumming as governor, but he still feared persecution and violence if the army entered Utah. The Great Utah War was a conflict between the United States of America and the Mormon settlers of Utah Territory beginning in 1857. The government never reimbursed the outfitters for these losses, and in 1860 they formed the Pony Express to earn a government mail contract to keep them from falling into bankruptcy. Despite Thomas Kane's successful mission, tension continued throughout the spring and summer of 1858. Colonel Johnston took command of the combined U.S. forces in early November, but by this time the command was hampered by a lack of supplies, animals, and the early onset of winter. The Utah Territory during the American Civil War was far from the main operational theaters of war, but still played a role in the disposition of the United States Army, drawing manpower away from the volunteer forces and providing its share of administrative headaches for the Lincoln Administration. As governor, Cumming soon became more popular with the Mormons than with the military forces that had remained until the outbreak of the Civil War. Mormons remembered previous conflicts when they had lived near numerous non-Mormons. Bancroft, Hubert Howe; Bates, Alfred (1889). Most visited articles. September 7, 1857: Mountain Meadows Attack. April 2017 marked the centennial of America’s entry into World War I, a defining conflict of the modern era. A year's worth of work improving their living conditions had essentially been lost. This monument honors the Utah men who answered the call to protect the mail and telegraph lines along the continental route during the Civil War. The Mormons settled in Utah beginning in 1847, after mobs murdered the Prophet Joseph Smith and expelled the Mormon Church from Illinois. He also reported that they were ready to burn their homes and destroy their crops, and that the route through Echo Canyon would be a death trap for a large body of troops. Memories of earlier persecutions were invoked to build morale and prepare the people for possible further sacrifices. The federal government remained stalemated and little could be done. This was the Mormon militia created during the conflict in Illinois. The Black Hawk War erupted as a result of the pressures white expansion brought to Native American populations. Many felt that these sensationalized beliefs, along with early communitarian practices of the United Order, also violated the principles of republicanism as well as the philosophy of laissez-faire economics. Will Bagely believes that Mormon culture was inherently violent; Thomas Alexander and others conclude that Utah Territory was less violent than other contemporaneous societies. He therefore granted Kane unofficial permission to attempt mediation, although he held little hope for the success of negotiations. The War Department was now considering launching a second front in Utah via the Colorado. Utah World War I Commission. Brigham Young’s response would determine whether Johnston and his men marched into Salt Lake Valley as occupiers or as helpers and protectors of loyal citizens. On July 28, 1857, U.S. Army Captain Stewart Van Vliet, an assistant quartermaster, and a small escort were ordered to proceed directly from Kansas to Salt Lake City, ahead of the main body of troops. Polygamy, popular sovereignty, and slavery, December 1857–March 1858: winter intermission. The Utah War, also known as the Utah Expedition,[1] Utah Campaign,[2] Buchanan's Blunder,[3] the Mormon War,[4] or the Mormon Rebellion[5] was an armed confrontation between Mormon settlers in the Utah Territory and the armed forces of the United States government. The Captain therefore left his escort and proceeded alone.[30]. The Democrats believed that American attitudes toward polygamy had the potential of derailing the compromise on slavery. Reacting to Johnson's departure and urgent dispatches from Washington, Ives had taken an overland shortcut on horseback in order to reorganize his command prior to the steamer's arrival and to facilitate a rapid ascent to the Virgin River as commanded. Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often called Mormon pioneers, began settling in what is now Utah in the summer of 1847. It was assaulted on June 6, 1944, by elements of the U.S. 4th Infantry Division and was taken with relatively few casualties. Upon returning to the main body of the army, Van Vliet reported that the Latter-day Saints would not resort to actual hostilities, but would seek to delay the troops in every way possible. This concept was meant to remove the divisive issue of slavery in the Territories from national debate, forestalling armed conflict between the North and South. He received a brevet promotion to major general in 1865. The appointments did not require the approval of the territory's inhabitants. As they settled in Utah, the desert territory began to blossom. "[40] By the time Governor Cumming was securely placed in office, the Utah War had become an embarrassment for President Buchanan. The Danites were created by some Mormons in Missouri in 1838. Buchanan's proclamation was also unpopular among the Mormon rank and file. One consequence of the Utah War was the creation of the famous Pony Express. The treaty ceded to the United States the land that now comprises the states of California, Utah, and Nevada, as well as parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Wyoming, and Colorado. Thomas L. Kane in the uniform of a Union lieutenant colonel in 1861. Richard Bennett, The Lion and the Emperor: The Mormons, the Hudson's Bay Company, and Vancouver Island, 1846–1858, BC Studies, no. While rumors spread during the spring that an army was coming to Utah and that Brigham Young had been replaced as governor, this was not confirmed until late July. However, they too were critically short of horses and supplies. Beginning in 1851, a number of federal officers, some claiming that they feared for their physical safety, left their Utah appointments for the east. Wilford Woodruff, Journal of Wilford Woodruff, 5:93. Van Vliet carried a letter to Young from General Harney ordering Young to make arrangements for the citizens of Utah to accommodate and supply the troops once they arrived. The Mormons were pleased by the appointment, but gradually the amicable relationship between Mormons and the federal government broke down. Contents: 1 Background. Major General Stewart Van Vliet of the U.S. Army. "[35] However, marking a change from earlier pronouncements, Young declared that under threat from an approaching army he would not allow the new governor and federal officers to enter Utah. It was the start of the campaign to liberate Europe and defeat Germany. Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston led the Utah Expedition to put down a Mormon rebellion against the Union. They were ordered not to take offensive action against the Mormons, but to enter the territory, enforce the laws under the direction of the new governor, and defend themselves if attacked. Utah Beach, the westernmost of the five landing areas of the Normandy Invasion of World War II. The federal government maintained significant control over territories such as Utah, and the President chose federal officers for the territories with the advice and consent of the Senate. He and other leaders frequently spoke of putting homes to the torch and fleeing into the mountains rather than permitting their enemies to take over their property. During the war, more than 12 million Americans were sent into the military, and a similar number toiled in defense-related jobs. Additional info added to the photo includes an anecdote about his position as a Mormon missionary in Germany during the breakout of the war between Germany and France. The film’s all-star cast included Henry Fonda as Brig. Still, it was a relocation that dwarfed the earlier flights from Missouri and Illinois; approximately 30,000 people moved fifty miles or more to Provo and the other towns in central and southern Utah. Iowans at Home Support the War. ), Diary of Brigham Young, 80 n. 80. The most cataclysmic conflict in history, World War II reshaped the globe and laid the foundation for the modern world. A dramatization of the landing at Utah Beach from the 1962 war epic The Longest Day. Brigham Young intended to evacuate the Latter-day Saints to the Bitterroot Valley, which is now in Montana. Brigham Young accepted Buchanan's terms and pardon, although he denied Utah had ever rebelled against the United States. The U.S. government abandons the Utah Territory. However, the rest of American society rejected polygamy with some even accusing the Mormons of gross immorality. incurring the expense of sending troops without investigating the reports on Utah's disloyalty to the United States, dispatching the expedition late in the season, and. Representative Stephen Handy, sponsor of H.C.R. The movement may have included the relocation of nearly 30,000 people between March and July. The Battle of Normandy was a hard-fought campaign. In the early morning of October 15, this "jackass cavalry" had a run-in with Lot Smith's command and fired over 30 bullets at the Mormons from 150 yards. [34] Van Vliet found it impossible to persuade resentful Mormon leaders that the Army had peaceful intentions. However, in early March Kane traveled to the Johnston's winter base at Fort Bridger. Mormon Elias Blackburn recorded in his journal, The roads are crowded with the Saints moving south. Early Mormon pioneers, especially, associated it with the imminence of Christ's Second Coming. The men quickly returned to Salt Lake City and notified Brigham Young that U.S. Army units were marching on the Mormons. [31] Conversing with Van Vliet, Young denied complicity in the destruction of the law offices of U.S. Federal Judge Stiles and expressed concern that he (Young) might suffer the same fate as the previous Mormon leader, Joseph Smith, to which Van Vliet replied, "I do not think it is the intention of the government to arrest you," said Van Vliet, "but to install a new governor of the territory". This included permitting Johnston's Army into the Territory. They killed two Mormons and wounded several others. At this time, the leadership of the LDS Church supported polygamy or "plural marriage" as it was called by the Mormons. However, the President would not wait. William P. MacKinnon, "Loose in the Stacks: A Half Century with the Utah War and Its Legacy". Library of Congress. Johnston was soon joined by the 2nd Dragoons commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Philip St. George Cooke, who had accompanied Alfred Cumming, Utah's new governor, and a roster of other federal officials from Fort Leavenworth. Buchanan also decided to send a force of 2,500 army troops to build a post in Utah and to act as a Posse comitatus once the new governor had been installed. Daniel H. Wells was a member of the Latter-day Saint First Presidency, commander of the Nauvoo Legion, and later mayor of Salt Lake City. It resulted from misunderstandings that transformed a simple decision to give Utah Territory a new governor into a year-long comedy of errors with a tragic potential. He met with Brigham Young on September 1, 1857 along with other Native leaders. Iowans at home also helped support the war. The current economic climate has a lot of people talking about the Great Depression. 100 years ago Thursday, the U.S. declared entry into World War I. Wilford Woodruff, Journal of Wilford Woodruff, 5:96. As early as 1852, Dr. John M. Bernhisel, Utah's Mormon delegate to Congress, had suggested that an impartial committee be sent to investigate the actual conditions in the territory. 2 Concurrent Resolution Recognizing the United States and Utah’s Participation in World War I, spoke at the ceremony to commemorate the 100-year anniversary of the U.S. entering World War I.. Young announced the approach of the army to a large group of Latter-day Saints gathered in Big Cottonwood Canyon for Pioneer Day celebrations on July 24, 1857. [44], Hamblin's group made direct contact with Ives expedition by sending Thaïes Haskell, to hail the steamer's crew from the bank while the other Mormons remained in hiding. Flattop. This activity led to a variety of other changes that fundamentally affected the cultural and political life of the state. William Preston Johnston; Albert Sidney Johnston (1878). Mormons state of mind was further alarmed when they learned in late June 1857 that LDS Apostle Parley P. Pratt had recently been murdered while serving a mission in Arkansas. All the Mormon settlements in northern Utah must be abandoned and prepared for burning. [44], The journals of members of the Ives expedition as well as the Mormons from Hamblin's group attest to the tension and war hysteria among both the US Army and the Mormons in these remote territories.[44]. Then, apparently influenced by reports from Judge W. W. Drummond and other former territorial officials, he and his cabinet decided that the Mormons would resist the replacement of Governor Brigham Young. Largely due to their evacuation, the settlers' livelihoods and economic well-being were seriously impacted for at least that year and perhaps longer. During this winter season Lt. Joseph Christmas Ives was embarking on an assigned task of exploring and surveying the Colorado River by steamship to determine the extent of the river's navigability. [38] However, historians question the intent of this proclamation as it was never widely circulated, if at all, and while copies of the document exist, there is no mention of it in any contemporary sources. All LDS missionaries serving in the United States and Europe were recalled. Upon reaching Utah in early June, they found Young and his colleagues willing to accept forgiveness for past offenses in exchange for accepting Cumming and the establishment of an army garrison in the territory. The U.S. Capitol in 1846. Congress, over almost unanimous Republican opposition, authorized two new volunteer regiments, and Buchanan, Secretary of War John B. Floyd, and Army Chief of Staff Winfield Scott assigned 3,000 additional regular troops to reinforce the Utah Expedition. British divisions bore the brunt of German resistance on the eastern flank of the front, enabling US forces to stage a breakout in the west. It was an expensive war between the Mormon people in Utah and the government and army of the United States. I am feeding 100 men, all hard at work. So, without investigation, the contract for mail service to Utah was canceled and 2,500-man military force was ordered to accompany Alfred Cumming to Great Salt Lake City. Numerous newspaper articles continued to sensationalize Mormon beliefs and exaggerated earlier accounts of conflicts with frontier settlers. Colonel Alexander, whom his troops called "old granny", decided not to enter Utah through Echo Canyon due to Van Vliet's report, news of the Mormon fortifications and a propaganda campaign by Brigham Young. For the Democrats, attacks on Mormonism therefore had the dual purpose of disentangling polygamy from popular sovereignty, and distracting the nation from the ongoing battles over slavery.[14]:74–75. The stories of these "Runaway Officials" convinced the new President that the Mormons were nearing a state of rebellion against the authority of the United States. From excited Indians they learned of the approach of an "army" marching overland from Yuma - which in reality was Ives's packtrain. While Young became aware of the change in territorial administration through press reports and other sources, he received no official notification of his replacement until Cumming arrived in the Territory in November 1857. At that time, only about 75,000 Mexican citizens lived north of the Rio Grande. President Millard Fillmore selected Brigham Young, President of the LDS Church, as the first governor of the Territory. They joked around, and they did what they had to do. Determining that they could not ascend the river beyond Black Canyon they turned back downstream. Like the contemporary Abolitionists, Latter-day Saint leaders declared that the judgments of God would be meted out upon the nation for its unrighteousness. [44], Meanwhile, George Alonzo Johnson, a merchant who had an established business transporting goods by steamship between the Colorado River Delta and Fort Yuma, was upset that he had not been awarded command of the expedition's original exploratory mission. From 1857 to 1858, President James Buchanan sent U.S. forces to the Utah Territory, in what became known as the Utah Expedition. World War I and the Roaring 20's. However, in 1862, new troops arrived and built Fort Douglas in the foothills east of Salt Lake City. The government conducted a war surplus sale, which greatly enriched the Utah economy. Popular sovereignty was the theoretical basis of the Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. Mormon mail contractors, including Porter Rockwell and Abraham O. Smoot, received word in Missouri that their contract was canceled and that the Army was on the move. He is identified as being a Pharmacist’s Mate 1st Class from Salt Lake City, Utah who was on duty at one point at a hospital in Samoa on August 1st, 1918. As early as August 1857, Brigham Young had written to Thomas L. Kane of Pennsylvania asking for help. White from Fort Yuma's acting commander, Lt. A. [20] These factors contributed to the popular belief that Mormons "were oppressed by a religious tyranny and kept in submission only by some terroristic arm of the Church...[However] no Danite band could have restrained the flight of freedom-loving men from a Territory possessed of many exits; yet a flood of emigrants poured into Utah each year, with only a trickle...ebbing back."[14]:70–71. The next day twenty-four … The Old Spanish Trail, the southern route into California. Several thousand more militiamen prepared their families for evacuation and underwent military training. This account was further supported by Territorial Chief Justice Kinney in reports to Washington, where he recited examples of what he believed to be Brigham Young's perversion of Utah's judicial system and further urged his removal from office and the establishment of a one-regiment U.S. Army garrison in the territory. Utah History Encyclopedia, 1994, Johnston’s Army (from Harper’s Weekly, 14 April 1858). The author Chaim Potok, who was a chaplain in Korea, had as an assistant a Mormon boy from Utah, "a man whom I would have trusted with my life," he wrote. In Buchanan's State of the Union address earlier in the month, he had taken a hard stand against the Mormon rebellion, and had actually asked Congress to enlarge the size of the regular army to deal with the crisis. In early October, Legion members burned down Fort Bridger lest it fall into the hands of the army. Mexican-American War: U.S. Army Advances Into Mexico . The confrontation lasted from May 1857 until July 1858. And if you're not otherwise occupied at 11 a.m. this morning, you might want to take a moment to remember the war dead and then call up a living veteran and take him or her to lunch. From 1857 to 1858, President James Buchanan sent U.S. forces to the Utah Territory, in what became known as the Utah Expedition. American lawmakers were deeply suspicious about Mormonism, their government, and the practice of polygamy. Utah war | MormonWikia | Fandom. Despite Young's efforts, Native Americans attacked Mormon settlements during the course of the Utah War, including a raid on Fort Limhi on the Salmon River in Oregon Territory in February 1858 and attacks in Tooele County just west of Great Salt Lake City. An emigrant wagon train of non-Mormons is attacked and besieged by a mixed contingent of Mormon militia dressed as Paiute Indians. He was to pass himself off as a renegade from Utah and then learn as much as possible about Ives's intentions, however, his guise failed since one of Ives's men who had been to Utah claimed to recognize him as a Mormon bishop. 3 Timeline of events. This second proclamation received wide circulation throughout the Territory and was delivered by messenger to Col. Alexander with the approaching army. On September 15, the day after Van Vliet left Salt Lake City, Young publicly declared martial law in Utah with a document almost identical to that printed in early August. Although his relationship with Colonel Johnston was poor, he eventually persuaded Governor Cumming to travel to Salt Lake City without his military escort under guarantee of safe conduct. The wars ended only after the federal government removed the Utes to the Uintah and Ouray Reservation in the Uinta Basin during the late 1860s and early 1870s. Social and religious conflict between Mormons and non-Mormons continued to influence the life of the city for a century. During the heavy winter of 1857–1858, he traveled under the alias "Dr. Osborne" over 3,000+ miles from the East coast to Utah, first by ship to Panama, crossing the isthmus via the newly constructed (1855) Panama Railway, and then taking a second ship to San Francisco. Some poverty would be widespread in the territory for several years. The Utah War was a 19th century armed conflict between Mormon settlers in Utah Territory and the United States federal government. Kane left Utah Territory for Washington, D.C. in May to report to President Buchanan on the results of his mission. 1857-1858 The battles began miles ahead of the army's arrival in SLC . A number of Mormon settlements in Idaho, Nevada and California would not be resettled for decades and some were permanently abandoned. Upon zooming in to Civil War photos, you see more clearly how similar we are to those who lived in the 1860s. This call for an investigation was renewed during the crisis of 1857 by Bernhisel and even by Senator Stephen A. Douglas. Communications and personal problems delayed Kane’s approach to Buchanan, and not until after Christmas did he receive permission to go to Utah as an unofficial emissary. However, Harney's letter did not mention that Young had been replaced as governor, nor did it detail what the mission of the troops would be once they arrived and these omissions sparked even greater distrust among the Saints. August 28, 1857: Col. Johnston is ordered to replace Gen. Harney as commander of the U.S. troops. It seems that Kane successfully convinced Young to accept Buchanan's appointment of Cumming as Territorial governor, although Young had expressed his willingness to accept such terms at the very beginning of the crisis. In addition to dealing with the question of slavery in the regions acquired from Mexico as a result of the Mexican War, the measures created the territories of New Mexico (now New Mexico and Arizona) and Utah. But every significant bill that they passed fell before the votes of southern Democratic Senators or suffered a presidential veto. These letters reported that Mormons were already engaged in hostilities with United States Army forces who were attempting to enter Utah from the east, and Ives's expedition took on a new meaning. Thus, in mid-August, militia Colonel Robert T. Burton and a reconnaissance unit were sent east from Salt Lake City with orders to observe the oncoming American regiments and protect LDS emigrants traveling on the Mormon trail. The northern states wanted ordinary, free individuals and families to be able to create their own farms. See: Norman F. Furniss, The Mormon Conflict, 1850–1859 (1960, 1977); Richard D. Poll, Quixotic Mediator: Thomas L. Kane and the Utah War (1985). He was met there by Mormons who took him overland through San Bernardino and Las Vegas, to Salt Lake City on the strenuous southern branch of the California Trail, arriving in February 1858. Yes we did move the needle, yes we did grow the audience and yes we did get respect and recognition, but you want to keep doing that. Brigham Young and other LDS Church leaders believed that the remoteness of Utah would secure the rights of Mormons, and ensure the free practice of their religion. Buchanan and the U.S. Congress saw these acts as obstructing, if not subverting, the operation of legitimate institutions of the United States. President James Buchanan was inaugurated in March 1857. Fortunately, the lull in hostilities during the winter provided an opportunity for negotiations, and direct confrontation was avoided. Many east-coast politicians, such as President James Buchanan, were alarmed by the semi-theocratic dominance of the Utah Territory under Brigham Young. As early as February 1858, Young had sent parties to explore the White Mountains on what is now the Utah/Nevada border where, he erroneously believed, there were valleys that could comfortably harbor up to 100,000 individuals. Some federal officials sent by the President maintained essentially harmonious relationships with the Mormons. However, Alexander's force was stopped by a heavy blizzard in late October. It is estimated that 20% to 25% of Latter-day Saints were members of polygamous households with the practice involving approximately one third of Mormon women who reached marriageable age. Ives' party steamed up the Colorado River with frequent contact with Mojave and other natives who traded with them and were allowed to board their vessel. [47] Even after Alfred Cumming was installed as governor in mid-April, the "Move South" continued unabated. Add new page. These two narrow passes lead into the Salt Lake Valley, and provided the easiest access to the populated areas of northern Utah. Some people feel that if the telephone was available then, maybe it would not have happened. Tensions between followers of the Latter Day Saint movement (Mormons) and Protestant Americans had simmered for two decades, including intense conflicts in … Those war jobs seemingly took care of the 17 million unemployed in 1939. Johnston's Army settled in Camp Floyd, in a valley 50 miles southwest of Salt Lake City and separated from Provo (the second-largest city in the territory) by Utah Lake and a small range of mountains. [33] While their husbands and fathers were in the army, Iowa women ran the farms and the stores. 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