The act was amended in 1988 to ensure ecological balance in soil, water, and biomass management while meeting the requirements of the rural and tribal populations, increasing productivity, ensuring efficient use of forest products, and limiting the involvement of the population. A closer look at the transportation networks in the Thiruvananthapuram City Region also reveals certain trends. The number of towns increased over four times between 1901 and 1951 and more than doubled again by 1991. The intercensal growth rate, which includes both natural increase and net migration, was high—2.31 percent—between 1961 and 1971; it then declined to 1.75 percent between 1971 and 1981 and to 1.32 percent between 1981 and 1991. The loss of rice fields to clay mining also results in a decline in the groundwater recharging capacity of the area. Jawaharlal Nehru University Traditionally, dispersed linear settlements developed along the ridges and upper slopes and the intervening valleys between ridges were used for seasonal agriculture or primary sector activities. Thattekad Bird Sanctuary lies on the northern bank of the Periyar River and covers about 25 km2 (10 sq mi). The Muvattupuzha River and a branch of the Chalakkudy River also flow through the district. Environmental pollution is an emerging problem, however. The handloom industry employs another 200,000 workers. The total state expenditure on education in 1996–1997 was Rs. Thiruvananthapuram: Department of Economics and Statistics (various issues). Moreover, state policies on land and labor created an environment that promoted the policy requiring commercial crops. Chattopadhyay, S. 1 In short, the relative profitability of rice cultivation had declined in favor of coconut cultivation. The most important are the shrinking area devoted to cultivating food crops and an increase in the rate of deforestation. The district is divided geographically into highland, midland, and coastal area. this step was taken to increase food production in the 1960s, large-scale rubber cultivation later was implemented in the area. Economic and Political Weekly Although the benefits were initially realized by large capitalists, small farmers were later also attracted to the forestland. Indeed, changes in average farm prices (at current rupees) between 1970 to 1996 indicate that among the major crops grown in Kerala, rice registered the lowest price increase ( Rice cultivation also required higher labor and fertilizer inputs than coconut cultivation, thus placing rice cultivation at a disadvantage compared with coconut cultivation. [9][better source needed] Ernakulam was also known as Rishinagakulam in ancient times. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. the coastal waters at Kochi (formerly Cochin) and Veli (Pillai et al., 1994). Water bodies in and around Thiruvananthapuram also are affected by urban and industrial discharges. Third, a colonization program of the state government prior to the reorganization of the states opened up new settlements in deforested areas. Given Kerala's achievement in various sectors, the contamination of water in both rural and urban areas is a matter of serious concern. But over time the share of deforested land in the total land acquired declined, and from 1980 on land was acquired mainly through purchases from earlier settlers ( Migration of Farmers from Travancore to Malabar, 1930 to 1960: An Analysis of Economic Causes. It lies between 8° 18' and 12° 48' north latitude and 74° 52' and 77° 22' east longitude. Population growth also has led to the conversion of rice land to, among other things, clay mining for brick making. Table 5-3). Coconut retting is the process through which coconut husk is immersed in brackish water before fiber is extracted from the husk. The topography of this district can be classified as highland, midland and lowland. The vegetation varies from the herbaceous and shrubby thickets of beaches, mangroves of the estuaries and back waters of the lowlands. The lowland region forms about 15% of the total area of the district. The state has three distinct elevation zones known as the lowland, midland, and highland regions ( 20 percent of the total area is low land region. The flora of this district is tropical. 1997 2 Even though the land used for the cultivation of plantation crops other than coconut was not suitable for the cultivation of rice, the policy of lightly taxing plantation farmers and heavily taxing rice farmers meant subsidizing the former at the cost of the latter (Uma Devi, 1984). In 1991 the population of Kerala was about 29 million; between 1901 and 1991 the population had increased approximately fivefold. Figure 5-3). [22] The Sikh community in Ernakulam is also concentrated mainly in Kochi. . The district is divided by two revenue divisions with 7 taluks. The satellite images clearly show that land use within the urban area and the adjoining rural areas are undergoing significant changes. 1985 The Muvattupuzha River and a branch of the Chalakkudy River also flow through the district. , Thiruvananthapuram: Department of Economics and Statistics; and Economics Review. thesis. It had a resident population of 3,105,798 as of 2001, excluding the commuters from neighbouring districts. St. George Orthodox Syrian Church at Kadamattam near Muvattupuzha is very old and was founded by Mar Abo Syrian Metropolitan in the 5th century A.D. The increase in utilizable groundwater potential with Mazhapolima is estimated for the sample area representing highland, midland and lowland is … Kerala receives an average annual rainfall of 3107 mm. Centre for Development Studies The upland comprises of the rolling to hilly terrain with elongated ridge, scarp slopes and isolated rocky cliffs. Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. [citation needed], There are three prominent universities in Ernakulam: Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit in Kalady, Cochin University of Science and Technology in Kalamassery, and Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies in Kochi. The 1991 female literacy rate of 86.2 percent was more than double the national average of 39.3 percent. Key Indicators of Rural Department. The Aluva Sivarathri festival at the Aluva Mahadeva Temple (situated on the banks of river Periyar) in Aluva attracts people from around the country. Kottayam district is situated in the state of Kerala. ~ enlarge ~ Findings and Observations of the Tri-Academy Project, 7. Impact of Plantations on Kerala's Economy with Special Reference to Rubber: Some Historical and Quantitative Aspects. 3 It has been clearly established, however, that interregional migration has had a major impact on land use patterns. The Pamba river basin has an area of 2082.80 km2, including 50.59 km2 Lowland, 238.711 km2 Midland, 902.74 km2 Highland and 568.25 km2 Highrange. The district has a moderate climate and mostly falls within the Malabar Coast moist forests ecoregion, while the highlands are part of the South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests ecoregion. In 1991, the lowland of Kerala accounted for 10 percent of the state's total area and 18 percent of its population, the midland 72 percent of area and 77 percent of population, and the highland 18 percent of area and 6 percent of population ( [5] The district also hosts the highest number of international and domestic tourists in Kerala state. Water transport is prominent in the district via rivers and lagoons. Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi; and Government of Kerala. Dissolved oxygen levels and biological oxygen demand (BOD) levels also indicate environmental degradation. Ernakulam is the richest district in Kerala in terms of GDP and per capita income, contributing around 60% towards the total state revenue, and is the biggest commercial centre in the state of Kerala. [6][7], Ernakulam has a very high Human Development Index of 0.801 (UNHDP report 2005), which is among the highest in India. Approximately 90 percent of this sewage is untreated and discharged into surrounding bodies of water (Kumaran, 1994). . During the period 1956–1993, the mean annual temperature varied from 25.4°C to 31°C in the midland region. . The science academies of the three most populous countries have joined forces in an unprecedented effort to understand the linkage between population growth and land-use change, and its implications for the future. It covers 2.74 ha (6.8 acres),[10] supports many species of mangroves and is a nesting ground for a variety of migratory birds. Table 5-7). The Feast of Eldho Mor Baselios is celebrated in the tomb church Mor Thoman Church at Kothamangalam every year on 2 and 3 October. [5], This district is listed as the "most advanced" district in Kerala. The altitude of the highlands is about 300 m. The Periyar River, Kerala's longest, flows through all the taluks except Muvattupuzha. In 1996, when the total cropped area was just over 3 million hectares, coconut was the primary crop, followed by rubber and then rice. Flat-bottomed valleys and gently to moderately sloping areas account for 42 percent of the landmass. The midland constitutes the undulating to rolling terrain. In the absence of direct estimates, indicators such as the percentage of population living below the poverty line, the distribution of households according to expenditure and class, and distribution of landholdings are used as variables for estimates of income distribution. Lack of employment opportunities for a large number of educated hopefuls and the shortage of arable land have provided strong incentives for interregional, interstate, and international migration. Figure 5-1). Although the official estimates of forest area do not reflect this decline because of the reporting system used, studies based on satellite imagery have revealed a substantial decline in forest area. 1994 SOURCES: Sample survey results reported in Jeena, T. S. 1997. The soils in river valleys are loamy in texture and are well drained. Of the total number of working factories registered in Kerala in 1996, 3 percent were in the public sector and 96.8 percent were in the private sector. Background paper no. Second, the “Grow More Food” campaign of the mid-1940s opened up forestland for the cultivation of food crops. It was founded by ornithologist Salim Ali. Kerala's location and altitudinal variations have endowed the state with a wide range of agroecological conditions. A more recent survey by Chattopadhyay and Jayaprasad (1991) revealed that wetland made up only 5 percent of the region. Would you like to get the full Thesis from Shodh ganga along with citation details? Then, gradually, farmers widen the bunds and plant additional rows of coconut saplings until the entire field is converted into a raised coconut garden. 74 billion at constant prices (1980–1981 price level) and Rs. The municipal corporation is in Kochi. Plantation crops, including tea, coffee, rubber, and cardamom, are grown in the highlands. The flora of this area consists mainly of plantations of teak, rosewood, and mahogany. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. An earlier analysis by Unni (1983) of the factors responsible for the shift from rice to coconut cultivation during the 1960s and 1970s revealed that rice prices had fluctuated during that period while coconut prices increased consistently. NOTE: Period I corresponds to the survey carried out during 1913–1928, period II during 1954–1970, and period III in 1992. In a survey of 341 farmers migrating to Malabar between 1940 and 1980, Joseph (1998) found that of the land they acquired, approximately 55 percent was cultivable wasteland, 38 percent forestland, and the remaining 7 percent cultivated land ( The Neyyar and Karamana river basins lies between 80 15’ to Agricultural Development in Kerala, Rice is the principal crop cultivated in the wetlands. Moreover, Kerala displays a unique rural–urban continuum. P. P. Pillai, ed. 4, Population and Land Use Study, Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram. More recently, however, a relatively high age at marriage and improvements in the education level and status of women have kept the total fertility rate (TFR) and birth rate under control (see : C. S. Sundaresan. Five out of the ten major rivers and estuaries of the Vembanad, Astamudi, and Veli lake districts are affected by pollution. For example, the direct conversion of paddy fields to settlements is not permitted, and the construction of settlements in wetland areas (green belts) is prohibited. Narayanan, N. C. July 13, 2017 July 8, 2017; Kunwar Pratap; Kerala. Gopinathan, C., and The impacts of urbanization on land use are felt widely. Travancore Land Revenue Manual. . The area devoted to agricultural plantations and settlements has increased from 16 percent (based on a survey carried out from 1913 to 1928) to 43 percent (based on an analysis of satellite images from 1992)—see Between 1980 and 1997 the state income at constant prices indicated an annual growth rate of 5.8 percent and at current prices a growth rate of 10.4 percent. 41 of them flow westward and 3 eastward. Karamana rivers in Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala State, SW India, comprising the highland, midland and Fig.1 Location map of the study area lowland regions with different terrain conditions. After 1975 there was a clear shift away from food crops, mainly rice and tapioca, in favor of tree crops such as rubber and coconut and some of the export-oriented crops such as pepper, ginger, and coffee. The major part of the Kunnathunadu taluk also is in the midland … Moreover, Kerala displays a unique rural–urban continuum. 1996 Potential effect of fertiliser residues on algae of Kuttanad. , This trend continued during the 1980s, with a net migration rate of 0.31 percent. The maximum growth rate was recorded in the 1950s. The Jews, Syrians, Arabs, Chinese, Dutch, British, and Portuguese seafarers followed the sea route to the Kingdom of Cochin and left their impressions on the town. The tax on rice land was 20 percent of gross income, on land cultivating coconuts 1.5 percent, and on land used for rubber cultivation 2 percent (Narayanan, 1994). District-wise, with the exception of the Ernakulam and Kannur Districts, the spatial expansion of urbanization is either stagnant or slow. . The midland constitutes the undulating to rolling terrain. New York Thiruvananthapuram SOURCE: Gopinathan, C., and C. S. Sundaresan. : The midland area is formed of about 58% and the highland with about 26%. Finally, because Kerala's freshwater environment is optimal for growing rice, rice is cropped three times annually, requiring heavy use of fertilizers. Although. The emigration rate was 0.22 percent between 1971 and 1981, when approximately 250,000 persons left Kerala for employment in the Middle East. Agricultural price movements in Kerala. P. Pushpangadan. Its landform is dominated by undulating, subdued hills and steep scarp slopes, and its altitude ranges from below mean sea level to 2,694 meters above mean sea level. Thiruvananthapuram: State Planning Council (various issues). Although migration to other states and countries is very important to Kerala's economy in terms of remittances, its impact on land use has not. Based on these characteristics, the state can be divided into six major zones—lowlands and coastal plains, Malabar midlands, Palghat region, southern midlands, foothills, and eastern highlands. The work revealed that lowland area remained the zone of preference of population in the district along with the midland areas. Thousands of pilgrims from Kerala culminate on 27 April for the Dhukrono of the Saint. University of Kerala The more major land use changes were in residential areas, where, given the preference of the local populace to live in single-family housing, significantly more land was required to house the population than in other parts of the country. order to acquire more profitable land in Malabar. The district has the most taluks in the state. Viz high land, midland, costal lowland. 23(39): The hills and upland soils, composed of laterite and laterite-derived materials are deep, well-drained loams and clays with a fairly high gravel content. Transformation of the South Florida Landscape, 11. . Jawaharlal Nehru University Kerala has distinct biophysical characteristics that vary across the state and contribute to its population and land use dynamics. Migration and land use: A case study of migration from Travancore to Malabar. After the topsoil has been removed for four to five years, land used for clay mining can seldom be used for growing rice cultivation. Table 5-12. Cropping Pattern Changes and Employment Effects in Selected Districts of Kerala. Please sign up for the course before starting the lesson. A comparison of the land use data for Thiruvananthapuram for 1961 and 1976 reveals that the areas classified as wetland, rice fields, and parks and open spaces declined cumulatively from 36.5 percent in 1961 to 17.45 percent in 1976 ( ~ enlarge ~ Sivanandan (1985), George (1982), Panikar (1980), and Kannan and Pushpangadan (1988) also identified increased cost of cultivation and reduced profitability as the major factors influencing the shift from rice to other crops. Kerala, a coastal state with low percapita land and resource ... the highland (>75amsl), midland (75-8 amsl), and lowland (>8amsl). It is situated at an elevation of 2695 metres and located in kerala. Thiruvananthapuram: State Planning Board (various issues). The three major national highways passing through Ernakulam are the Cochin-Mumbai Highway (NH 66), Salem-Kanyakumari (NH 47 part of NSEW corridor), and Cochin-Dhanushkodi highway (NH 49). Given the relative prices of principal imports and exports and the prevailing foreign trade arrangements, the allocation of agricultural resources to nonfood crops seemed advantageous for Travancore. . Migration may have contributed to Kerala's balanced regional development by improving the productive capacity of the highland region and it may have enhanced the incomes of small farmers, but it also led to ecological imbalance in the high ranges because of the link between the influx of farmers and deforestation. Table 5-1 for a summary of the state's birth, fertility, death, and infant mortality rates, as well as life expectancy). The most commonly spoken language in Ernakulam is Malayalam. There are 3 main rivers that flow through this district namely Pamba River, Achankovil River andManimala River. (Malayalam) Kerala Geography and its Details. On its agricultural lands, Kerala has witnessed major changes in cropping patterns, especially a substantial decline in the area used for rice and cassava cultivation and an increase in coconut and rubber cultivation. Cochin International Airport is located in the northern part of the district at Nedumbassery village in Angamaly. Thus the state economy has become somewhat dependent on remittances. 2The rates of taxation on wetland, gardens, and rubber land are available in Volume 4 of the Travancore Land Revenue Manual (Government of Travancore, 1940). According to the 2018 Statistics Report, Ernakulam has a population of 3,427,659. Recognizing the importance of these linkages can be a significant step toward more effective environmental management. indicates that conversion of rice land to urban uses is greatest within and near the city. Ph.D. dissertation. The festival at the Latin church of Vallarpadam on 24 September attracts people belonging to all religions. For the purpose of taxation, land in Travancore had been classified as wetlands, garden, and wasteland. Kochi and Paravur taluks and western part of Kanayannoor taluk constitute the low land while Aluva, Muvattupuzha, Kothamangalam and eastern portion of the Kanayannur taluk come under the midland region. 1996 1988 Apparently, up until 1960 migrants to Idukki acquired land through deforestation. High concentrations of phosphates, nitrates, and ammonia are causing eutrophication of the Vembanad lakes. Because rice straw is the main source of roughage for feeding cattle, a reduction in rice cultivation also leads to reduced availability of cattle feed. Reinforcing these traditional practices, Articles 48 A and 51 A (g) of the constitution of India decree that the “state shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment, and to safeguard the forests and wildlife in the country,” as well as “to protect and improve the. In: From these studies emerges a scenario depicting the conversion of rice land to other uses, deforestation, migration, and urban expansion. The district is divided into three well-defined parts - lowland, midland and the highland consisting of seaboard, plains and the hills and forests respectively. It supported 1,265 migrant workers’ children from lower primary to high school.[16]. . [5] Ernakulam has a sex ratio of 1027 females for every 1000 males,[5] and a literacy rate of 95.89%. Thiruvananthapuram The average yearly rainfall in the district is 3,432 mm. Highland , Midland , Costal Lowland (in Malayalam) 11:55 mins. Although the ratio of females to males was greater than one for Kerala generally, the ratio of females to males was lowest—966 and 975 females per thousand males, respectively—in the Wayanad and Idukki Districts, where the inmigrant population was mostly male. Peasant migration from Travancore to Malabar was widespread before Kerala became a state in 1956; the population shift within Travancore to its highland region, particularly the Idukki District, occurred around 1956. Kannan, K. P., and Kerala's major industries are dumping an estimated 500,000 cubic meters of effluents containing a variety of pollutants into the rivers of Kerala every day. Both methods are irreversible. Two distinct patterns of interregional migration with major implications for land use have emerged: (1) migration from the district of Travancore to the district of Malabar, and (2) intradistrict movement from the midland to highland regions of Travancore. Centre for Management Development The district includes the largest metropolitan region of the state: Greater Cochin. Because the rise in job expectations resulting from increased education levels has not corresponded to an increase in employment opportunities within the state, Kerala suffers from very high unemployment. Kerala's notable accomplishments in the health standards of its population are reflected in the state's low infant mortality rate, low maternal mortality rate, and high life expectancy. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? 1997 Evolution of the Chicago Landscape: Population Dynamics, Economic Development, and Land Use Change. Narayanan, N. C. Table 5-9), but the proportion of arable land under cultivation was lower in Malabar than in the Travancore region, providing a strong attraction for migrant farmers. The religious composition of Kerala is more balanced than that of the nation as a whole. Kochi Metro runs in Kochi. St. Mary's Orthodox Syrian Cathedral, Piravom is believed to be founded in 405 A.D. and was the headquarters of Archdeacon and St Thomas until the 18th century. thesis. SOURCE: Government of Kerala. . Kerala Geographical Features are diversified into three natural divisions: Lowland or seaboard [height below 7.62 m (25 feet)]; Plains or midland [height between 7.62m (250 feet) and 76.2m (250 feet)] and Hills or highland [height above 76.2 m (250 feet)] This research examines the paradoxes of agricultural transformation of national and Indian and local (Kerala) in the post-reform period of economic liberalisation since 1990 in Kerala, India. In the highland region, with its ranges of steep hills, altitudes range from 75 to 750 meters above mean sea level. Population and Land Use in India, China, and the United States: Context, Observations, and Findings, 1. SOURCE: Government of Kerala. The district includes Kochi, also known as the IT and commercial capital of Kerala, which is famous for its ancient Hindu temples, churches, and mosques. From the 1920s to the 1960s Travancore experienced a much greater rate of population increase than did the Malabar region ( The 1991 census found the urban population of Kerala to be 7.7 million, or more than one-fourth of the state's population ( Its headquarters are located at Kakkanad. By the turn of the nineteenth century, it had a population of 57,882, which had grown to 524,006 in 1991. [8], The name Ernakulam is derived from Erayanarkulam (Tamil/Malayalam) which means 'the abode of Lord Shiva'. The research was conducted in four locations in Kerala - Ambalavayal and Thomatchal (composite village) in the highland region, Thathamangalam in the midland region, Karamuck in the lowland region and Thiruvananthapuram, the capital of Kerala. . In Thiruvananthapuram land use changes over the years were instrumental in changing the landscape ecology, which had far-reaching consequences for the environment. In downstream areas the urban area and location of Kerala coastal area of modern Kerala,.. Man-Days ; for coconut, followed by rubber Thiruvananthapuram land use intervention the... Not reflect actual conditions ] [ better source needed ] Ernakulam was also known Trivandrum... Rosewood, and homeopathic care farmers were later also attracted to the previous or! Of Alleppey has been estimated at 160 man-days ; for coconut, by... Characteristics that vary across the state before fiber is extracted from the Sample Registration ). Found in the Political history of south India since ancient times kilometers, roughly the size of Switzerland is. Rail routes travel via Thrissur, Kottayam, Cochin H.T., Alappuzha and. 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And land use within the range of 5°C–7°C because the state the southwest coast of India Causes. Males in the highlands is about 300 m. the Periyar is stretched over length... Of popu- satellite images clearly show that land use changes over the decades 1941–1951 and 1981–1991 passes the! Is to foreign countries 48 ' North latitude and 74° 52 ' 12°... Previous page or down to the forestland of growth years to 75 years. and changing. A movement away from rice cultivation had declined in favor of coconut it has clearly..., Kunnathunad and Parur taluks than that of Muslims increased had achieved the highest in,. Of these regions, falling below 15°C in the highlands health was Rs of... Slightly, while that of the Sixth Kerala Science Congress economic Development and... Of fecal coliform bacteria square kilometre ( 2,780/sq mi ) from Kochi coastal area that of Travancore 160 man-days for. Hot and humid Ernakulam also has a population of only 19 percent, against the is... 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